Focus areas

Contemporary approaches for tackling international peace and security issues require not only a coherent global approach...

National Backgrounders – European Foreign Policy: United Kingdom

Author Veriter

National Backgrounders – European Foreign Policy: Sweden

Author Veriter

National Backgrounders – European Foreign Policy: Spain

Focus area Peace & Security

National Backgrounders – European Foreign Policy: Slovenia

Focus area Peace & Security

National Backgrounders – European Foreign Policy: Slovakia

Focus area Peace & Security

National Backgrounders – European Foreign Policy: Romania

Focus area Peace & Security

National Backgrounders – European Foreign Policy: Portugal

Focus area Peace & Security

National Backgrounders – European Foreign Policy: Poland

Author Veriter

National Backgrounders – European Foreign Policy: The Netherlands

Focus area Peace & Security

National Backgrounders – European Foreign Policy: Malta

Focus area Peace & Security

National Backgrounders – European Foreign Policy: Luxembourg

Focus area Peace & Security

National Backgrounders – European Foreign Policy: Lithuania

Focus area Peace & Security

National Backgrounders – European Foreign Policy: Latvia

Focus area Peace & Security

National Backgrounders – European Foreign Policy: Italy

Author Veriter

National Backgrounders – European Foreign Policy: Ireland

Focus area Peace & Security

National Backgrounders – European Foreign Policy: Hungary

Focus area Peace & Security

National Backgrounders – European Foreign Policy: Greece

Author Veriter

National Backgrounders – European Foreign Policy: Germany

Author Veriter

National Backgrounders – European Foreign Policy: France

Author Veriter

National Backgrounders – European Foreign Policy: Finland

Author Veriter

National Backgrounders – European Foreign Policy: Estonia

Focus area Peace & Security

National Backgrounders – European Foreign Policy: Denmark

Author Veriter

National Backgrounders – European Foreign Policy: Czech Republic

Focus area Peace & Security

National Backgrounders – European Foreign Policy: Cyprus

Focus area Peace & Security

National Backgrounders – European Foreign Policy: Croatia

Focus area Peace & Security

National Backgrounders – European Foreign Policy: Bulgaria

Focus area Peace & Security

National Backgrounders – European Foreign Policy: Belgium

Author Veriter

National Backgrounders – European Foreign Policy: Austria

Author Veriter

GGI Commentary: EU-CELAC partnership: make it real, make it political

Author Tercovich

June 2015

On 10-11 June 2015 in Brussels, the second EU-CELAC (Community of Latin American and Caribbean States) summit dedicated to “working for prosperous, cohesive and sustainable societies for our citizens” brought together 61 European, Latin American and Caribbean leaders to discuss the relations between the two regions. The Latin American and Caribbean region is a key partner for the EU. The EU’s foreign direct investment in Latin American and Caribbean States is more than the EU’s investment in Russia, India and China combined.

 

With more than €800 funds allocated, the upgrade of the European Union-Latin America and Caribbean Foundation (EU-LAC Foundation) to the status of an international organization, the discussions on the possible convergence of positions in multilateral fora, and with several agreements signed in the margins of the summit, the second EU-CELAC summit was more than a diplomatic get-together.

 

The GGI Commentary underlines the main issues and achievements of the second EU-CELAC summit and presents the future challenges of the EU-CELAC partnership, the other face of Transatlantic relations.

Focus area

Peace & Security
Read more Download

GGI Briefing Paper: Civil Society reforms in Uzbekistan: More than government chicanery?

Author Jürgenliemk

January 2014

‘Central Asia has a centuries-old tradition of bringing Europe and Asia together’ states the EU’s Central Asia Strategy (EU 2007:2)1. One promising avenue for bridging the European Union and Central Asian countries is via civil society. As one of the most traditional and least likely candidates, Uzbekistan has recently shown signs of opening to Civil Society Organisations.

Before this background this Briefing Paper asks if the opening by the government is genuine or pure chicanery? If the latter, how can we explain that one of the most authoritarian countries on earth raises expectations it cannot satisfy?

Focus area

Peace & Security
Read more Download

GGI View from Practice: 'The EU Foreign Policy of My Dreams' by Johan Galtung

Focus area Peace & Security

December 2013

In this GGI ‘Views from Practice’ Paper, Professor Johan Galtung (principal founder of the field of peace studies) provides a concise and out-of-the-box “wish list”, outlining his 10 recommendations for the future of the European Union’s foreign policy. Professor Galtung commends the EU’s ‘glittering success’ in terms of peaceful integration, but warns about a decline of international presence and impact through wrong-headed policy choices. He argues for a more actively intercultural and more successful EU foreign policy that would share and promote the European experience through a mutual dialogue of civilizations and to foster the establishment of strong regional organizations within a ‘United Regions’ system worldwide. Professor Galtung stresses the need for a dialogue across civilizations, religions and post- colonial dividing lines. In particular, he highlights the lack of understanding between Christianity and Islam. Focusing on his method for mediation, Galtung advocates to promote an inter-religious dialogue based on appreciating each other’s values, historical grievances and future visions. Galtung also focuses on the EU’s relations with core partners (such as Russia, China and African partners) EU Crisis Management and UN Peacekeeping as well as the use of force and the Syria crisis. Finally Galtung emphasizes the need for a more symmetrical approach to EU-African Capacity-Building, including acknowledging and addressing Europe’s colonial and post-colonial wrongdoing.

Focus area

Peace & Security
Read more Download

Assessing the EU's Joint Communication on the Comprehensive Approach

Author Tercovich, Koops

Assessing the EU’s Joint Communication on the Comprehensive Approach: Implications for EU Crisis Response and Conflict Prevention

December 2013

On 11 December 2013, the High Representative of the EU for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and the European Commission published their Joint Communication on ‘The EU’s Comprehensive Approach to external conflict and crises’. Long-awaited in academic and policy circles, the 12-page document builds on a variety of aspects already flagged up in the EEAS mid-term review, but offers for the first time an official EU position paper on the often elusive concept of the EU’s ‘Comprehensive Approach’.

This GGI Briefing Paper provides a critical analysis of the Joint Communication and assesses its proposals in the context of the EU’s on-going post-Lisbon institutional transformations and policy advances in the field of early warning, conflict prevention and crisis response. The paper argues that important progress has been made mostly at the EU- internal level of the comprehensive approach, namely in the fields of institution-building, the development of early warning indicators and the facilitation of information-gathering and information-flows. Yet, the external dimension of the EU’s comprehensive approach (i.e., the EU’s cooperation with key international and regional organizations) remains woefully underdeveloped and needs to be addressed urgently in parallel to internal reforms.

Focus area

Peace & Security
Read more Download

GGI View from Practice: 'The Middle East as weapons of mass destruction free zone' by Cosimo Risi

Author Risi

October 2013

Creating a nuclear weapons and weapons of mass destruction free zone (NWFZ/ WMDFZ) in the Middle East is a promising goal. The recent chemical weapons attack on Syrian citizens highlighted the need for regional diplomacy and better protection of civilians. The Global Governance Institute advocates re-launching negotiations regarding a WMD free zone in the Middle East. It is crucial to take these steps at this moment in time. The obstacles are considerable, but the benefits far outweigh the costs. Increased trust among states in a fragile region, additional protection for citizens and a binding agreement promoting peace are possible if an eight-step roadmap is followed. Written by the Italian Ambassador to Switzerland and previous Permanent Representative to the Disarmament Conference in Geneva, Cosimo Risi, this ‘view from practice’ provides insights on how to advance an ambitious multilateral proposal.

Focus area

Peace & Security
Read more Download

GGI Analysis: From a Militarized to a Humanized Responsibility to Protect

Author Vandebriel

June 2013

In recent years the frequency and intensity of natural and environmental catastrophes has risen sharply and is expected to continue to worsen over time due to global climate change. Accordingly our world now faces increasingly significant losses of lives, livelihoods, and cultural and natural heritage due to these disasters. The Global Governance Institute feels that it is incumbent upon world governments and the international community to design and implement efficient and effective frameworks to address these issues, and with this paper, we suggest that the international Responsibility to Protect (RtoP) framework serve as a starting point. In this paper, we explore how previous attempts to incorporate natural disasters could potentially be overcome by demilitarizing the RtoP response to natural disasters through the use of an expanded and empowered International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC). The IFRC is a neutral and experienced non-military, humanitarian organization, and as such, would address concerned UN Member States’ unease over outside interventions on their territory. The paper also serves as a call to begin a discussion within and between the climate change and peace and security communities on both the increasingly important topic of disaster relief, as well as on shifting the discourse on security away from the reactionary politics of military-based security and towards action aimed at the root causes of much violent conflict, a lack of human security.

Focus area

Peace & Security
Read more Download

GGI Views from Practice: 'Leading the Peacebuilding Commission' by Ejeviome Eloho Otobo

Author Otobo

March 2013

In this second GGI ‘Views from Practice’ Paper, Ejeviome Eloho Otobo (Director and Deputy Head of the United Nations Peacebuilding Support Office) provides a detailed inside overview of the main milestones and crucial developments in the evolution of the main bodies of the Peacebuilding Commission (PBC). Based on the author’s own experience and a wide range of conversations and interviews with PBC Chairs, the paper provides in-depth insights into the young organization’s institutional adaptations, core changes as well as the main contributions of all of the serving Chairs. The analysis is predicated on the belief that the growth of any new intergovernmental institution critically depends on the creative adjustments that are made by successive leaders, as the institution evolves. Such adjustments are necessarily incremental borne out of persistent experimentation. Finally, the paper provides some reflection on the PBC’s future challenges, related both to the issues of funding and a deeper relationship with the Security Council. Addressing these challenges will be vital for continuing the young institutional history and wider field impact of this unique UN body.

Focus area

Peace & Security
Read more Download

GGI-Cambridge Workshop Report: St Malo and European Security

Author Jürgenliemk, Koops

December 2012

Report produced after the workshop organised at the University of Cambridge, titled: ‘St Malo and European Security and Defence: Much Ado about Nothing?!’

At the bilateral meeting at St Malo in 1998 France and the United Kingdom agreed to move European integration forward and establish a European Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP). In the subsequent years, the European Union (EU) brought to life the necessary institutions, procedures, and capabilities for civilian and military crisis management operations under CSDP.

Fourteen years after St Malo and ten years after the first CSDP operation was launched, the workshop allowed many of the visionaries involved in shaping the origins of European security cooperation to reflect on what had been achieved. The gravity of including security and defence in the European Union framework in 1998 is often sidelined in today’s debates. The EU has integrated in many ways beyond what was deemed feasible and had surprised many practitioners and academics in the first years by the dynamic development that unfolded.

At the same time, CSDP was an innovation and not a revolution. It allowed member states to continue business as usual in defence. Instead, duplication and excessive storage of tanks, jet fighters and equipment for territorial defence persists in most member states. Despite the current challenges, CSDP proved its value and the firm opinion was that European security cooperation is there to stay. Yet, much more needs to be done to ensure its relevance.

Focus area

Peace & Security
Read more Download

GGI Analysis: Government and Good Governance in Africa

Author Alemazung

GGI Analysis: Government and Good Governance in Africa

November 2012

Democracy and good governance are two concepts that are often perceived as closely interlinked. This paper uses different examples from Africa to show that these ideas are, in fact, not only different, but are endowed with dimensions which also allow them to exist independent from one another.

To do so the paper defines and examines the interrelation between democracy, government and governance and analyses the failures in African political systems based on deficiencies in these interrelations. It concludes that these deficiencies can be overcome by both the right kind of democratic constitution and political arrangement that would safeguard constitutionalism, as well as a good leadership for the people and not for the leaders.

Furthermore, this paper argues that even though good governance and democracy are far from being synonymous, they are necessary for any successful political system aiming to establish and promote economic and socio-political development in Africa.

Even though democracy is not equal to good governance and a country could be well governed without a democratically elected leader, democracy is a key factor to hold governments accountable.

Focus area

Peace & Security
Read more Download

GGI Briefing Paper: Montenegro's Accession to the EU

Author Lekić

August 2012

With the opening of the EU accession negotiations at the end of June 2012, Montenegro has been awarded with recognition of making progress in the past years and endorsing its political dedication to become an EU member. As a candidate state and a relatively young country at the international stage, Montenegro is particularly devoted to joining the Union. In order to fulfill the EU membership criteria, Montenegro is focusing on matching the political and economic criteria set by the EU, implementing the acquis communautaire (the EU legislation), and endorsing the EU principles of: democracy, the rule of law, respect for human rights and protection for minority groups, as well as economic criteria. Nevertheless, Montenegro is still facing obstacles in reform implementation, the most challenging being public administration reform, reforming the judicial system and strengthening the rule of law, protecting minority rights, enhancing media freedom and fighting corruption and organized crime.

The Global Governance Institute has identified three major challenges obstructing Montenegro’s path to EU membership: protection of women’s rights, overcoming regional differences and reforming the judicial system.

Focus area

Peace & Security
Read more Download

GGI Briefing Paper: Electing Freedom? Key Challenges for Libya after the 7 July 2012 Election

Author Cristiani, Dehez

August 2012

Of all the upheavals in the Middle East, the Libyan uprising has been among the more violent and devastating. The removal of Libya’s erstwhile dictator and the triumph of the rebel forces, supported by Operation Unified Protector, have provided the Libyan people with the clearest cut to its previous regime that the Arab Spring has yet produced. Yet, Libya is now facing a different sort of challenge: realising the promise of democratic government and personal freedom in an environment where the state’s control over the country is incomplete at best.

Now that the first elections have been a success, one of the primary concerns Libya faces is the drafting of the final constitution. The 200 parliamentarians elected on July 7th 2012 are now responsible for appointing the 60-member body that will draft the constitution, a process that requires the entrenchment of rule of law and human rights, whilst maintain a healthily open consultation process. Further crucial priorities are security sector reform, where the international community plays a key role, strengthening the rule of law through establishing clearer communication channels and defined roles between different ministries, and continuing the process of state-building and drawing a line under the past through transitional justice programmes that meet the needs of Libyan society.

Focus area

Peace & Security
Read more Download

GGI Analysis: The Somali crisis and the EU

Author Jürgenliemk, Holzer

July 2012

About 90 percent of world trade is conducted via sea transport and up to 50 percent of the world’s container ships pass by the Horn of Africa. In result, Somali piracy attacks costs the global economy some USD 7 billion a year according to the One Earth Future Foundation.

The crisis in Somalia has thus become a global problem. In response, the worlds’ powers are trying to contain and defuse it. The United States, China, Russia, NATO and the European Union all patrol the Indian Ocean in one of the largest military operations currently ongoing. Thousands of navy officers on war ships are engaged off the Somali coast aiming to protect container and cargo ships. With this costly undertaking not having much effect on preventing piracy, new strategies are needed.

The Global Governance Institute takes a look at the political dynamics in Somalia and recommends to closer integrating shore and offshore-based engagement. It focuses on the European engagement with two running crisis management operations and one launched on 16 July 2012 and to be operational in the autumn. In the medium- to long-term engagement on the ground is needed.

Piracy is a symptom of political instability in Somalia, not its cause. The revenue generated by pirates via ransom was about USD 160m in 2011, a fraction of what the international naval operations cost.

Focus area

Peace & Security
Read more Download

GGI Factsheet: History of UN Peacekeeping

Author Jürgenliemk

June 2012

The United Nations was founded to prevent war, in particular based on the devastating experiences of the First and Second World War. However, ‘peacekeep-ing’ is not mentioned in the Charter, the founding document of the UN.

The end of the Cold War marked the beginning of a new era in UN peacekeeping. A surge in the number, size and scope of operations and subsequently a reform of methods and approaches continued throughout the 1990s.
The new dynamic of the Security Council also enabled the UN to engage in more ambitious operations. The UN began to deploy troops to conflict areas before a ceasefire had been established in order to either protect civilians in an act of humanitarian intervention or bring an end to the hostilities by way of ‘peace en-forcement’. Since the mid-2000s, the numbers of deployed person-nel have been stagnant and are decreasing in the last years due to the Western engagement in Afghanistan. While peacekeeping will remain a key area for the United Nations to engage in, it is likely to be less per-sonnel intensive in the coming years.

Focus area

Peace & Security
Read more Download

GGI Analysis: UN-EU Cooperation in Peacekeeping: Challenges & Prospects

Author Novosseloff

June 2012

Partnerships between the United Nations (UN) and other International Organizations in the field of Peacekeeping have become a central feature of contemporary Global Security Governance. Since the early 2000s, the UN’s relationship with the European Union (EU) has developed as one of the most institutionalized partnerships of its kind. Yet, even though both organizations pursue similar objectives and seem –on first sight- like natural partners, a wide range of challenges and limitations currently hamper their effective cooperation. This GGI Analysis provides an in-depth analysis of the historical evolution of the UN-EU partnership, of the major elements of its institutionalisation as well as of the successes and tensions that have arisen from joint operations in the field. Examining also more recent cases of UN-EU cooperation, such as in the case of Kosovo and the Chad, the paper identifies major obstacles and challenges and offers several recommendations towards a more coherent and mutually reinforcing partnership.

 

Focus area

Peace & Security
Read more Download

GGI View from Practice: 'Europe in the World' by Steven Vanackere

Focus area Peace & Security

May 2012

This GGI ‘Views from Practice’ Paper by Belgian’s Deputy Prime Minister and former Minister of Foreign Affairs, Steven Vanackere, provides a comprehensive and frank analysis of five major challenges (organizing the new global governance, improving relations with Europe’s changing neighbourhood, engaging with strategic partners, responding to conflicts and humanitarian crises as well as climate change and resource security); five major foreign policy innovations; and five major options for improvements related to the European Union as a credible and effective actor in a substantially changing Global Governance landscape. The paper addresses the main power shifts as a result of the financial crisis and takes stock of the main foreign policy innovations of the EU’s Lisbon Treaty. In the final section of the paper, Vanackere calls for the following main improvements:

– A permanent EU Military Headquarters for the conduct of EU Civilian/Military Operations

– Abolishing the ‘unanimity rule’ in decision-making procedures related to CFSP and EU Foreign Policy matters

– More permanent forms of EU Representation in the G20, World Bank and IMF (including a permanent representation of the Eurozone in these institutions)

– Strengthening of the European External Action Service (including shared analysis of events and crises as well as ‘smarter’ and more rational cooperation between the 27 diplomatic national services)

This GGI “Views from Practice’ Paper is based on Steven Vanackere’s speech and discussion delivered in the frame-work of the European Peace & Security Studies (EPSS) Practitioners Lecture Series, organized by the Global Governance Institute, Vesalius College and the Institute for European Studies, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB).

Focus area

Peace & Security
Read more Download

GGI Briefing Paper: The Biological Weapons Convention, Bioterrorism and the Life Sciences

Author van Willigen

April 2012

One of the most shocking abilities of biological weapons is the ability to kill you without noticing a previous infection. This makes it a very powerful and dangerous source of modern weaponry. It can take days before a victim becomes ill or dies and it might be difficult to determine whether this was because of a natural outbreak of disease or because of an attack with a biological weapon. This raises serious problems for policymakers working on biosecurity, especially in relation to the threat of bioterrorism. With the advancements made in life sciences (such as biology, bio-nanotechnology, genetics) there is a growing concern among policymakers and academics that terrorists might misuse research intended for legitimate purposes. When it comes to global efforts to counter bioterrorism it is important to know to what extent the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) – as the traditional cornerstone of the biological weapons non-proliferation regime – addresses this challenge. In this policy brief we argue that the tools at the disposal of the BWC to tackle bioterrorism and to monitor developments in the life sciences are rather limited. The most recent Review Conference, which took place at the Palais des Nations in Geneva in December 2011, changed little in that respect. We argue that the limited role of the BWC can be explained by the fact that the lowest common denominator the 165 States Parties can agree on is to preserve the BWC as a traditional arms control regime. As a result, countering bioterrorism and debating the right balance between scientific freedom and security in the life sciences will mainly take place outside the BWC. This has implications for global governance in the sense that it demands cooperation between a plethora of stakeholders, including states, international organizations, industry and scientists. Ideally the BWC would have to develop further into a hub in which these actors are able to create synergy in the global efforts to counter bioterrorism.

 

Focus area

Peace & Security
Read more Download

The United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN Women)

Author Lynch

September 2011

In 2006, the Secretary General’s High-Level Panel on UN System-World Coherence proposed consolidating elements of the UN system focused on women into one larger and stronger women’s agency. This recommendation was endorsed by Kofi Annan and later unanimously approved by the General Assembly on 2 July 2010. As part of its reform agenda, the UN created a new agency called UN Women, dedicated to promoting global gender equality and women’s empowerment. This reform is intended to streamline and improve the UN system, combining four separate parts into one. The hope is that better coordination and outreach can result from this union. In an attempt to assess how this reform may be beneficial to the UN system and women around the world, the Global Governance Institute has launched a research and advice project on ‘Reforming for Results? UN Women and the promotion of global gender equality’. This GGI Background Paper will provide a brief outline of the nature of women’s rights and examines the core institutions within the UN that have so far focused on gender equality as well as those that have been combined in the newly created UN Women entity. This will be followed by a brief examination of the goals and potential strength of UN Women. The background paper forms the first in a series of GGI publications on tracking and analysing the performance of UN Women in the context of global governance efforts to promote gender equality and the empowerment of women.

Focus area

Peace & Security
Read more Download

GGI Briefing Paper: The UN Peacebuilding Architecture

Author Cavalcante

March 2011

This short background paper provides a brief description and explanation of the so-called United Nations „Peacebuilding Architecture‟ (PBA). It focuses on the creation of the architec- ture, the main mandates and core functions of its organs, as well as their interrelationships and connection with other UN bodies. This backgrounder sets the scene for the forthcoming GGI publications within the framework of the research project “The United Nations Peacebuilding Commission: Successes, Failures, Lessons Learned”.

Focus area

Peace & Security
Read more Download

GGI Factsheet: UN Peacebuilding Commission

Author Cavalcante

March 2011

The United Nations Peacebuilding Commission (PBC) was established in 2005 at the High-level Plenary Meeting of the UN General Assembly, the so-called World Summit (A/RES/60/1, of 24 October 2005). The decision to create this intergovernmental advisory body followed the identification of a number of defi-ciencies in the United Nations institutional capacities to effectively respond to the challenges of building peace in post conflict societies.

Focus area

Peace & Security
Read more Download

GGI Briefing Paper: European Civilian Crisis Management: Bridging the Resources Gap?

Author Jürgenliemk

January 2011

Civilian operations as part of the EU’s Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) – often referred to as civilian crisis management (CCM) in contrast to military operations – have become a key instrument of European foreign policy. They range from police, strengthening the rule of law, strengthening civil administration, and civil protection (outlined in the Feira European Council, June 2000) to various types of monitoring missions and support to EU Special Representatives (added in the Civilian Headline Goal 2008, December 2004). Civilian crisis management ties in closely with European values, discourse and norms arguably giving the EU a comparative advantage over actors such as NATO as a military alliance or the United Nations with a more diverse membership and the mandate to direct large-scale military peacekeeping operations as well as interim administrations and peace building missions, often containing civilian and police components. Two-thirds of EU CSDP operations were civilian or had civilian components (18 of 24). In addition, the demand for civilian crisis management has been growing since the 1990s and keeps rising. The European Common Security and Defence Policy is, in practice, largely driven by the need for civilian crisis management.

Focus area

Peace & Security
Read more Download